International Organisation for Migration (IOM)
Created in 1951 in order to support people that had been displaced due to the Second World War, the International Organisation for Migration (IOM) is today the main inter-governmental body in the field of migration.
Currently composed of 169 Member States and of further 8 States with observer status, the IOM has the objective to provide humane, safe and orderly migration, benefitting both migrants and society as a whole.
Since crossing borders and moving from one place to another is an intrinsic characteristic of any human being, participants of KULMUN 2019 will also have to undertake this voyage and attempt to solve the global challenges posed by migration.
Topic A: Human Trafficking in the Sahel
The Sahel is an arid region between North Africa and the Sub-Saharan part of the continent that has long served as a bridge between north and south. Because of its climate and rough terrain, authorities struggle to enforce their rule, creating the ideal environment for a wide range of illegal activities. Poor agriculture policies have drastically increased desertification of arable land, pushing more and more people into already overpopulated cities. Add to this that many countries around the Sahara desert are experiencing instability, like Nigeria, Chad and Sudan, to name a few.
The most crucial state might be Libya, whose former leader al-Qadhafi blocked refugees from going to Europe and effectively discouraged the use of the north route through Libya. With his removal, the way to Europe was opened and many people were emboldened to risk the dangerous journey through the desert. They put their lives in the hands of traffickers and often fall victim to exploitation. Human trafficking has become an immensely profitable business and vulnerable migrants are often exploited through forced labour or prostitution. How will the international community handle this?
Topic B: Migrant Workers
Migration is leading to several insecurities, as migrants arriving in a country are mostly looking for a way to get out of an unstable situation and that includes obtaining a working position. Nonetheless, there is nothing easy in the process of finding a job and the weak position that the migrants are in can be used by many as a means to getting a cheap workforce. When crossing the borders to flee wars, dramatic conditions, persecutions or any dreadful event, migrants are dreaming of a better life but what awaits them can actually be a terrible nightmare.
In many countries migrants are not recognised as official workers and are not paid, or are not protected by employment laws, which leads to what is called “modern slavery”. The IOM, as a representative of migrants, is willing to protect every migrant and ensure a stable working position and protection. What will your countries do to ensure compliance with human rights and employment protection within our committee?
- Central African Republic
- People’s Republic of China
- South Africa
*this country is advised for experienced delegates