The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
With currently 29 members, the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) is committed to attaining security in the North Atlantic area. It is a political and military alliance created in 1949, with the ability to carry out crisis-management and disaster-relief operations under the principle of collective defence, depicted by article 5 of its Treaty.
Through cooperative security, NATO has carried out numerous missions, and is at present operating in areas such as Afghanistan, Kosovo and the Mediterranean. Throughout the years, it has also increased the tempo and diversity of its activities.
At KULMUN 2019, participants will express their will unanimously and focus on the security problems experienced by the North Atlantic region.
Topic A: Improving the speed of decision making in times of crisis
In case of crisis the use of the NATO Response Force (NRF) – a force which is created to react in a matter of days to volatile situations – depends on a consensual political decision made by all 29 member of the North Atlantic Council. Reaching such a decision, however, has proven to be a difficult and often a rather lengthy process, which seriously affects NATO’s ability to respond to crises effectively.
This creates a danger of minor issues evolving to large scale conflicts due to the lack of a swift response. It is even worse when NATO does not come to an agreement and because of it does not respond to the emergency at all. This incapability to decide how to deal with a crisis is not limited to the use of the NATO Response Force. In fact, Member States often fail to reach political agreement outside of the NRF framework as well. The Ukrainian crisis was a stark example of that. In the aftermath of the Crimean annexation, Germany and the USA often clashed in their views on a suitable response to the Russian aggression. How can NATO improve the speed and efficiency of its decision making-process in times of crisis without compromising the principle of consensual decision-making?
Topic B: The militarization of the Arctic
Climate changes are shaping the future of global relations and cooperation by opening new questions and bringing up old unresolved disputes. The melting of the ice cap in the Arctic has had grave consequences for the safety of the Northern region, both ecologically and economically. The Russian federation has recognized the opportunity to secure the natural reserves, previously hidden by the ice, which are becoming more and more available.
Due to the unresolved territorial disputes in the Arctic region the claim over said resources is a hot topic between the Arctic countries. The Russian federation has increased its military presence in the region in order to facilitate its foreign policy goal to becoming a reality. By conducting extensive military drills, establishing new military bases, increasing the number of personnel and ice-breakers it is posing a serious threat to the peace and security of European countries. What can NATO do to prevent the situation from escalating while preserving the national interests of its Member States?
- United Kingdom*
- United States*
- Italy (Topic A)/Russian Federation (Observer) (Topic B)*
- Czech Rep
*this country is advised for experienced delegates